The Supreme Court of the United States will review portions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Specifically, section 5 of the Act, which requires states and counties with a history of racial discrimination to seek federal permission to alter any election processes. It's widely considered to be the federal government's best weapon against racial discrimination.
The case is being brought forth by Shelby County, Alabama, which claims that federal reliance on 40-year-old voting data to determine modern discrimination practices is unconstitutional, and that state and local governments have made significant progress in voting rights since the law passed. The Act was last renewed in 2006.