Margaret Doughty, an atheist, was told by immigration officials to prove she had a religious faith or see her application for US citizenship denied.
After a petition and letters of protest, US Citizenship and Immigration Services withdrew its request and granted Doughty citizenship.
Doughty had stated on her application that she could not take the required pledge to bear arms in defense of the nation because she is morally opposed to war. Citing her "sincere objection to participation in war." She explained that she didn't "possess traditional religious beliefs," but was "willing to perform work of national importance under civilian direction or to perform noncombatant service in the Armed Forces of the United States if and when required by the law to do so."
In response, Citizenship and Immigration Services wrote to her demanding that she prove that she was "a member in good standing" of a religious organization that preached against violence. Their letter informed her that a note "on official church stationary" would be adequate documentation.
The American Humanist Association and the Freedom From Religion Foundation both wrote on Doughty's behalf arguing that the demand was a "religious test" and therefore unconstitutional. Various Supreme Court rulings including Welsh v. United States found that conscientious objectors didn't need to base their objections on religious faith.
Via the Huffington Post.